Currently, academic fields fall back upon authorship checklists and guidelines, which set forth the standards for authorship ethics. Guidelines developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) are the most widely adopted by leading health professions journals. Authors are expected to meet all four essential authorship criteria.

i. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;

ii. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;

iii. Final approval of the version to published; and,

iv. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

These four criteria will be discussed in turn. 

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