Critical pedagogy is one approach to education and teaching aligned with transformative education. It was introduced by educationalist Paulo Freire in the 1970's and continues to be advanced by education scholars (e.g. Joe Kincheloe).

In general, critical pedagogy calls for: 

  1. a critique of the banking model of education; 
  2. a move towards transformative education through dialogue; and, 
  3. an ultimate goal of fostering critical reflection and action upon societal conditions and inequities. 


Freire P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed, translated by MB Ramos, introduction by D Macedo. 30th Anniversary Edition. London: Continuum; 2007.   

bell hooks. Teaching to Transgress. New York: Routledge; 1994.

Kincheloe JL. Critical Pedagogy Primer. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.; 2005.

Teaching for Transformation (TforT) OS is a suite of offerings including online education supplements, annual conference, and custom consultations. TforT is brought to you in partnership by the Centre for Faculty Development and the Centre for Advancing Collaborative Healthcare & Education, extra-departmental units of the University of Toronto, hosted at Unity Health Toronto and University Health Network, respectively.

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