Critical pedagogy is one approach to education and teaching aligned with transformative education. It was introduced by educationalist Paulo Freire in the 1970's and continues to be advanced by education scholars (e.g. Joe Kincheloe).

In general, critical pedagogy calls for: 

  1. a critique of the banking model of education; 
  2. a move towards transformative education through dialogue, and; 
  3. an ultimate goal of fostering critical reflection and action upon societal conditions and inequities. 


Freire P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed, translated by MB Ramos, introduction by D Macedo. 30th Anniversary Edition. London: Continuum; 2007.   

Hooks B. Teaching to Transgress. New York: Routledge; 1994.

Kincheloe JL. Critical Pedagogy Primer. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.; 2005.

To cite this work: Ng S, Baker L, Friesen F. Teaching For Transformation. An Online Supplement. [Internet]. 2018. Available from

Centre for Faculty Development, University of Toronto at St. Michael's Hospital.